Title: Investigating Physical and Cultural Characteristics of International Regional Landscapes using the Inquiry Method
  • Lesson plan covering SOL Standard WG.3b for a 90 minute class period of 10th grade World Geography.
  • Topic : Regional landscapes and what they tell us about local climate and culture
  • Overview : Our world is sprinkled with diverse physical and cultural characteristics. Understanding theses differences and why they occur can help deepen and broaden an individuals understanding of their own culture, as well as others. The practicality of understanding particular occurrences in the regional landscape can also lead to building/purchasing a home that will survive the region's climate and a regions culture the student feels comfortable in. Students will apply the concept of a region and explain how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants by studying specific essential knowledge content architecture photography through the process of the Inquiry Method. Students will be assessed four times in class, and may also have a homework assignment (resource ca1).
  • Background Info :
    1. standard WG.2a
    + Climate is defined by certain characteristics
    + Climate patterns result from the interplay of common elements
    + Climatic regions have distinctive vegetation
    + Certain weather phenomena are unique to specific regions
    + Climate and weather phenomena affect how people live in different regions
    2. standard WG.2b
    +Physical and ecological processes shape the Earths surface
    + Humans both influence and are influenced by their environment
3. standard WG.2c
+ Technology has expanded people's ability to modify and adapt to their physical environment
4. standard WG.3a
+ Regions are areas of Earth's surface that share unifying characteristics
+ Regions may be defined by physical or cultural characteristics
+ Regional labels may reflect changes in people's perceptions

Inquiry Method
      1. Key Components of the Method : using questioning, hypothesizing, and research in order to understand more about any given thing or fact; coming to a conclusion about this information beyond basic factual understandings and basing this conclusion on research conducted on your hypothesis. Inquirer must use critical problem solving and abstract thinking skills in order to come to an accurate and precise conclusion.
      2. Rationale : Firstly, this process is widely accepted and typically used among western educators, scientists, and philosophers. Second, inquiry method will allow students to understand this [standard WG.3b] complex and multifaceted topic a their own pace and through their own questions and opinions. Third, this method allows the time for this topic that truly requires practice and reflection in order to understand, retain, and apply the content. Finally, students will develop marketable critical problem solving and abstract thinking skills in this activity.

  1. Fulfilling state requirements by covering SOL STANDARD WG. 3B: the student will apply the concept of a region by explaining how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
a. Essential Understandings
- Regional landscapes are influences by climate and underlying geology.
- Regional landscapes are influences by the cultural, economic, and political characteristics of their inhabitants.
b. Essential Questions
- How does the regional landscape reflect the physical environment?
- How does the regional landscape reflect the characteristics of the inhabitants?
c. Essential Knowledge
– climate affects types of natural vegetation
– landforms affect transportation, population distribution, and the location of cities
– religious buildings (e.g. mosques, churches, synagogues, temples, pagodas)
– dwellings (e.g. tiled roofs in Med, chalets in Switzerland, thatched roofs in Pacific, tents and yurts in Asia, castles in Europe)
– Taj Mahal, Kaaba, Western Wall, Dome of the Rock, Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Pyramids, Kremlin, Eiffel Tower, Virginia State Capital Building, Washington Monument, White House, Lincoln Memorial, Statue of Liberty.
d. Essential Skills
- Gather, classify, and interpret information
- Analyze photographs and pictures and make inferences
- Draw conclusions and make inferences about data
  1. Students will be able to describe elements of the human arts/culture through the introduction and investigation of global architecture.
  2. Students will be able to orally discuss and present content in a social setting, in order to make SOL relevant to current student life; as well as future citizenship and adult preparation.
  3. Students will be able to apply and demonstrate their understanding of the content information in an abstract/critical writing assessment.

  1. Basic Class Participation; on time, participates/pays attention in class wide discussion, productive group work observed and recorded by teacher. (OBJ 3)
  2. PHOTOSLIDE HYPOTHESIS/REVISION/CONCLUSION WORKSHEETS (resource pw1, pw2, pw3); completion, accurate, conclusion matches article (OBJ 1, 2)
  3. Presentation; participation from all group members, conclusions match article (OBJ 3
  4. DREAM HOUSE AND COMMUNITY CONTENT APPLICATION WORKSHEET (resource ca1); completion, response specifically pertains to prompt (student responses should not be off topic), correct application of physical and cultural characteristics (content), answers alls portions of the prompt.(OBJ 4, OBJ 1)

  1. Engagement in the inquiry (Hook) 15mins
    1. Students will enter classroom and receive their note packet for the day. In this case, the packet would be the 2x2 slide view.
    2. The first slide on the smart board will be resource m1. Students will be asked to quickly review before learned background information by:
      a. answering questions “what is a region, climate?” through class discussion
      b. applying this review by answering the questions “what type of vegetation, population density, transportation, and locations of cities?” in a number of regions on m1 (draw symbols on smartboard, brainstorm responses on white board).

  2. Elicit Hypotheses 10mins
    1. Students will be asked to reflect on how we applied knowledge concerning vegetation, cities, etc, by understanding the geography and climate of the region.
    2. A second slide will contain INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD and the teacher will explain this is what the class just did, and will continue to do at a higher level.
    3. Teacher will assign students to groups of 2-3 (depending upon class size) and ask students to sit together.
    4. Teacher will hand out a single photo slide per group, as well as resource pw1.

  3. Revising Hypotheses 3mins
    1. Teacher will hand out “clues” (resource clues) to each student group (one per group).
    2. Teacher will ask students to fill out second resource pw2 worksheet with their new clue, and to make revisions to their hypotheses if they should need/want too.

  4. Data Gathering and Processing 15mins
    1. Teacher will hand out articles pertaining to specific photo slides and groups (i.e. pyramid photo slide, gets pyramid article).
    2. Teacher will ask students to read the article, and fill out the final resource pw3 conclusion worksheet with information they find in the article.

  5. Conclusion 60mins
    1. Teacher will change powerpoint to 3rd slide. (The rest of the powerpoint will contain copies of the photo slides to shine on the wall while students present that specific building).
    2. Teacher will call upon the group that has that building, who will then come to the front of the class and present their concluding findings on resource pw3.
      a. the rest of the class will be filling the student's conclusions in their notes for future SOL studying purposes.
    3. After the presentations, students will be given resource ca1 worksheet in order to complete.
    4. Quick reflection of class summary/inquiry method, collection of and _ worksheets (If resource ca1 can not be completed in class by the majority students in the allotted time, it can be extended as this class' homework assignment)

Materials for instruction
1. computer, projector, smartboard, Windows Powerpoint, white board markers
2. Worksheets, photoslides, clues, articles

Student materials for classwork
1. pen/pencil
2. journal notebook/plain paper


see citations below


all resourced from Encyclopædia Britannica (see citations below)

Pagoda, a towerlike, multistory, solid or hollow structure made of stone, brick, or wood, usually associated with a Buddhist temple complex and therefore usually found in East and Southeast Asia, where Buddhism was long the prevailing religion.
The pagoda structure derives from that of the stupa, a hemispherical, domed, commemorative monument first constructed in ancient India. Initially, these structures symbolized sacred mountains, and they were used to house relics or remains of saints and kings. Stupas evolved into several distinct forms in various parts of Asia. The finial, the decorative crowning ornament of the stupa, likely has roots in Hinduism, which predates Buddhism, in the symbols of yoni and lingam. Its design gradually became more elongated and cylindrical until the stupa’s upper portion took on an attenuated towerlike appearance.
This stupa shape was adopted by Buddhism as an appropriate form for a monument enshrining sacred relics. In China this purpose gave birth to a unique structure, the small underground structure known as the “dragon palace” or “dragon cave,” consisting chiefly of a brick- or stone-lined room. This enclosure, which was sometimes decorated with murals, held a container in which relics and funerary objects had been placed. The container holding the sacred objects was usually placed within one or even several larger containers. The outermost container was covered by the pagoda’s base, and, as the structure type evolved, the base became more elaborate, eventually taking the form of a pedestal. These pedestals were often decorated and, in later developments, dominated the body of the pagodas they supported.

Yurt, also spelled yurta, tentlike Central Asian nomad’s dwelling, erected on wooden poles and covered with skin, felt, or handwoven textiles in bright colours. The interior is simply furnished with brightly coloured rugs (red often predominating) decorated with geometric or stylized animal patterns. The knotted pile rug, first known from a nomad burial at the foot of the Altai Mountains (5th–3rd century bc), probably developed as a fur substitute to provide warmth and sleeping comfort in the yurt.
Other items found inside a typical yurt include saddlebags, drinking gourds, and tools for spinning and weaving. The yurt is pitched wherever the nomad finds good pasture for the herds and is carried from place to place on horseback or on a small wagon.

Chalet, timber house characteristic of Switzerland, the Bavarian Alps, Tirol, and the French Alps. The name originally referred to a sheepherder’s dwelling and, later, to any small house in the mountains.
The chalet is distinguished above all by the frank and interesting manner in which its principal material, wood, is used. The timber is generally cut into heavy planks, from 3 to 6 inches (7.5 to 15 centimetres) thick, and carefully framed together somewhat in the manner of a log house. Sidewalls, generally low, often extend beyond the ends, forming porches, or loggias. Upper floors almost universally project over the stories below and are decorated with interesting and varied types of brackets. Balconies across the front are common and are frequently embellished with carved railings.
Windows, hung as casements, are small, and in general roofs are of low pitch and project enormously, both at the eaves and at the gable ends, which are occasionally snubbed with a small triangle of sloping roof at the top. The roof surfaces are covered with large wood shingles or slabs of slate or stone; in districts with severe weather conditions, planks weighted with boulders are often laid over the roof covering to prevent damage from heavy gales. In plan, the chalet tends toward the square. Frequently, not only the house proper but also stables and storage barns are included under one roof.

Taj Mahal, also spelled Tadj Mahall, mausoleum complex in Agra, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India, on the southern bank of the Yamuna (Jumna) River. In its harmonious proportions and its fluid incorporation of decorative elements, the Taj Mahal is distinguished as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a blend of Indian, Persian, and Islamic styles. One of the most beautiful structural compositions in the world, the Taj Mahal was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.
It was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (reigned 1628–58) to immortalize his wife Mumtāz Maḥal (“Chosen One of the Palace”). The name Taj Mahal is a derivation of her name. She died in childbirth in 1631, after having been the emperor’s inseparable companion since their marriage in 1612. The plans for the complex have been attributed to various architects of the period, though the chief architect was probably Ustad Aḥmad Lahawrī, an Indian of Persian descent. The five principal elements of the complex—main gateway, garden, mosque, jawab (literally “answer”; a building mirroring the mosque), and mausoleum (including its four minarets)—were conceived and designed as a unified entity according to the tenets of Mughal building practice, which allowed no subsequent addition or alteration. Building commenced about 1632. More than 20,000 workers were employed from India, Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and Europe to complete the mausoleum itself by about 1638–39; the adjunct buildings were finished by 1643, and decoration work continued until at least 1647. In total, construction of the 42-acre (17-hectare) complex spanned 22 years.
Resting in the middle of a wide plinth 23 feet (7 metres) high, the mausoleum proper is of white marble that reflects hues according to the intensity of sunlight or moonlight. It has four nearly identical facades, each with a wide central arch rising to 108 feet (33 metres) and chamfered (slanted) corners incorporating smaller arches. The majestic central dome, which reaches a height of 240 feet (73 metres) at the tip of its finial, is surrounded by four lesser domes. The acoustics inside the main dome cause the single note of a flute to reverberate five times. The interior of the mausoleum is organized around an octagonal marble chamber ornamented with low-relief carvings and semiprecious stones (pietra dura); therein are the cenotaphs of Mumtāz Maḥal and Shah Jahān. These false tombs are enclosed by a finely wrought filigree marble screen. Beneath the tombs, at garden level, lie the true sarcophagi. Standing gracefully apart from the central building, at each of the four corners of the square plinth, are elegant minarets.

Kaʿbah, also spelled Kaaba , small shrine located near the centre of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most sacred spot on Earth. Muslims orient themselves toward this shrine during the five daily prayers, bury their dead facing its meridian, and cherish the ambition of visiting it on pilgrimage, or hajj, in accord with the command set out in the Qurʾān.
The cube-shaped structure is roughly 50 feet (15 metres) high, and it is about 35 by 40 feet (10 by 14 metres) at its base. Constructed of gray stone and marble, it is oriented so that its corners roughly correspond to the points of the compass. The interior contains nothing but the three pillars supporting the roof and a number of suspended silver and gold lamps. During most of the year the Kaʿbah is covered with an enormous cloth of black brocade, the kiswah.
Located in the eastern corner of the Kaʿbah is the Black Stone of Mecca, whose now-broken pieces are surrounded by a ring of stone and held together by a heavy silver band. According to tradition, this stone was given to Adam on his expulsion from paradise in order to obtain forgiveness of his sins. Legend has it that the stone was originally white but has become black by absorbing the sins of the countless thousands of pilgrims who have kissed and touched it.

Western Wall, Hebrew Ha-Kotel Ha-Maʿaravi, also called Wailing Wall, in the Old City of Jerusalem, a place of prayer and pilgrimage sacred to the Jewish people. It is the only remains of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, held to be uniquely holy by the ancient Jews and destroyed by the Romans in ad 70. The authenticity of the Western Wall has been confirmed by tradition, history, and archaeological research; the wall dates from about the 2nd century BC, though its upper sections were added at a later date.
Because the wall now forms part of a larger wall that surrounds the Muslim Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqṣā Mosque, Jews and Arabs have frequently disputed control of the wall (and, often, right of access to it). This conflict has become particularly heated since the Israeli government took full control of the Old City in the wake of the Six Day War of June 1967. As it is seen today, the Western Wall measures about 160 feet (50 metres) long and about 60 feet (20 metres) high; the wall, however, extends much deeper into the earth. Jewish devotions there date from the early Byzantine period and reaffirm the rabbinic belief that “the divine Presence never departs from the Western Wall.” Jews lament the destruction of the Temple and pray for its restoration. Such terms as Wailing Wall were coined by European travelers who witnessed the mournful vigils of pious Jews before the relic of the sacred Temple. Visitors to the wall have long followed the practice of wedging small slips of paper, upon which prayers and petitions are written, into the cracks between the stones.

Dome of the Rock, Arabic Qubbat al-Ṣakhrah , shrine in Jerusalem built by the Umayyad caliph ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān in the late 7th century ce. It is the oldest extant Islamic monument. The rock over which the shrine was built is sacred to both Muslims and Jews. The Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, is traditionally believed to have ascended into heaven from the site. In Jewish tradition it is here that Abraham, the progenitor and first patriarch of the Hebrew people, is said to have prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac. Both the Dome and Al-Aqṣā Mosque are located on the Temple Mount, the site of Solomon’s Temple and its successors, an area known to Muslims as Al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf. The Dome’s structure and ornamentation are rooted in the Byzantine architectural tradition, yet its construction in the 7th century represents an early stage in the emergence of a distinct Islamic visual style.
An inscription in the Dome of the Rock establishes its date of completion as 691–692—some 55 years after Muslim armies captured Jerusalem, then a predominantly Christian city, from the Byzantine Empire. The structure, positioned near the centre of a wide raised platform, comprises an octagonal base topped by a gilded wooden central dome. The Dome of the Rock’s composition relates it to a class of Byzantine religious buildings known as martyria—typically circular or polygonal shrines erected to mark the graves of saints or to commemorate events of special religious significance. The dome, which is approximately 65 feet (20 metres) in diameter and is mounted on an elevated drum, rises above a circle of 16 piers and columns. Surrounding this circle is an octagonal arcade of 24 piers and columns. Below the dome a portion of the sacred rock is exposed and protected by a railing. A stairway leads to a natural cave beneath the surface of the rock. The outer walls also form an octagon, with each of the eight sides being approximately 60 feet (18 metres) wide and 36 feet (11 metres) high. Both the dome and the exterior walls contain many windows.
The interior and exterior of the structure are decorated with marble, mosaics, and metal plaques. Although the mosaics are similar in technique to those found in Byzantine public buildings and churches, the Dome’s mosaics exclude any representations of human or animal forms, instead featuring Arabic script and vegetal patterns intermixed with images of items such as jewels and crowns. Arabic religious inscriptions run around the octagonal arcade.

Holy Sepulchre, the tomb in which Jesus was buried and the name of the church built on the traditional site of his Crucifixion and burial. According to the Bible, the tomb was close to the place of the Crucifixion (John 19:41–42), and so the church was planned to enclose the site of both cross and tomb.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre lies in the northwest quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. Constantine the Great first built a church on the site. It was dedicated about ad 336, burned by the Persians in 614, restored by Modestus (the abbot of the monastery of Theodosius, 616–626), destroyed by the caliph al-Ḥākim Bī-Amr Allāh about 1009, and restored by the Byzantine emperor Constantine Monomachus. In the 12th century the Crusaders carried out a general rebuilding of the church. Since that time, frequent repair, restoration, and remodeling have been necessary. The present church dates mainly from 1810.

pyramid, in architecture, a monumental structure constructed of or faced with stone or brick and having a rectangular base and four sloping triangular (or sometimes trapezoidal) sides meeting at an apex (or truncated to form a platform). Pyramids have been built at various times in Egypt, The Sudan, Ethiopia, western Asia, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, India, Thailand, Mexico, South America, and on some islands of the Pacific Ocean. Those of Egypt and of Central and South America are the best known.
The pyramids of ancient Egypt were funerary edifices. They were built over a period of 2,700 years, ranging from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period. But the time at which pyramid building reached its acme, the pyramid age par excellence, was that commencing with the 3rd dynasty and ending at roughly the 6th (c. 2686–2325 bce). During those years the pyramid was the usual type of royal tomb. It was not, as such, an isolated structure but was always part of an architectural complex. The essential components, at least during the Old Kingdom, were the pyramid itself, containing or surmounting the grave proper and standing within an enclosure on high desert ground; an adjacent mortuary temple; and a causeway leading down to a pavilion (usually called the valley temple), situated at the edge of the cultivation and probably connected with the Nile by a canal. Scores of royal pyramids have been found in Egypt, but many of them were reduced to mere mounds of debris and long ago plundered of their treasures.

kremlin, central fortress in medieval Russian cities, usually located at a strategic point along a river and separated from the surrounding parts of the city by a wooden—later a stone or brick—wall with ramparts, a moat, towers, and battlements. Several capitals of principalities (e.g., Moscow, Pskov, Novgorod, Smolensk, Rostov, Suzdal, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Nizhny Novgorod) were built around old kremlins, which generally contained cathedrals, palaces for princes and bishops, governmental offices, and munitions stores.
The original Moscow Kremlin dates from 1156; the oldest remaining section dates from the 14th–15th century and is located in the southwest portion of the current complex, which is triangular in shape and covers an area of some 70 acres (28 hectares). It lost its importance as a fortress in the 1620s but was used as the centre of Russian government until 1712 and again after 1918. Originally constructed of wood, the Moscow Kremlin was rebuilt in white stone in the 14th century and then totally rebuilt in red brick in the late 15th century by Italian architects; it has since been repaired and altered on numerous occasions. Its architecture thus reflects its long history and encompasses a variety of styles, including Byzantine, Russian Baroque, and classical. The structure is triangular in shape; its east side faces Red Square, and it has four gateways and a postern (back gate), concealing a secret passage to the Moskva River. Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, the Moscow Kremlin became the headquarters of Vladimir Lenin’s Soviet government and the symbol of the communist dictatorship. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, it became the executive headquarters of the Russian federation. The Moscow Kremlin and the adjacent Red Square were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1990.

Eiffel Tower, Parisian landmark that is also a technological masterpiece in building-construction history. When the French government was organizing the International Exposition of 1889 to celebrate the centenary of the French Revolution, a competition was held for designs for a suitable monument. More than 100 plans were submitted, and the Centennial Committee accepted that of the noted bridge engineer Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel’s concept of a 984-foot (300-metre) tower built almost entirely of open-lattice wrought iron aroused amazement, skepticism, and no little opposition on aesthetic grounds. When completed, the tower served as the entrance gateway to the exposition.
Nothing remotely like the Eiffel Tower had ever been built; it was twice as high as the dome of St. Peter’s in Rome or the Great Pyramid of Giza. In contrast to such older monuments, the tower was erected in only about two years (1887–89), with a small labour force, at slight cost. Making use of his advanced knowledge of the behaviour of metal arch and metal truss forms under loading, Eiffel designed a light, airy, but strong structure that presaged a revolution in civil engineering and architectural design. And, after it opened to the public on March 31, 1889, it ultimately vindicated itself aesthetically.
The Eiffel Tower stands on four lattice-girder piers that taper inward and join to form a single large vertical tower. As they curve inward, the piers are connected to each other by networks of girders at two levels that afford viewing platforms for tourists. By contrast, the four semicircular arches at the tower’s base are purely aesthetic elements that serve no structural function. Because of their unique shape, which was dictated partly by engineering considerations but also partly by Eiffel’s artistic sense, the piers required elevators to ascend on a curve; the glass-cage machines designed by the Otis Elevator Company of the United States became one of the principal features of the building, helping establish it as one of the world’s premier tourist attractions.

Lincoln Memorial, stately monument in Washington, D.C., honouring Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, and “the virtues of tolerance, honesty, and constancy in the human spirit.” Designed by Henry Bacon on a plan similar to that of the Parthenon in Athens, the structure was constructed on reclaimed marshland along the banks of the Potomac River. The site selection caused controversy; the speaker of the House of Representatives, Joseph Cannon, favoured a more prominent spot across the Potomac, maintaining: “I’ll never let a memorial to Abraham Lincoln be erected in that g– damned swamp.” The cornerstone was set in 1915, and the completed memorial was dedicated before more than 50,000 people on May 30, 1922. Lincoln’s only surviving son, Robert Todd Lincoln, attended the ceremony. President Warren G. Harding and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court William Howard Taft, a former president, delivered addresses. Ironically, despite Lincoln’s renown as the “Great Emancipator,” the dedication ceremonies were strictly segregated; even Robert Moton, president of Tuskegee Institute, who spoke in the ceremony, was not allowed to sit on the speaker’s platform and instead was required to sit in an area reserved for African Americans.
The Lincoln Memorial includes 36 columns of Colorado marble, one for each state in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death in 1865; each column stands 44 feet (13.4 metres) high. The names of the 48 contiguous states are listed above the colonnade, and the dates of their admission to the Union are engraved in Roman numerals. Because Hawaii and Alaska attained statehood several decades after the Lincoln Memorial was finished, their names are inscribed on a plaque located on the front steps.
The interior features a 19-foot (5.8-metre) seated statue of Lincoln made of Georgia white marble. It was assembled on the premises from 28 pieces and rests on a pedestal of Tennessee marble. The statue was designed by Daniel Chester French and carved by the Piccirilli brothers of New York. Inscribed on the south wall of the monument is Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, on the north wall his Second Inaugural Address. On the ceiling are two paintings by Jules Guerin, Reunion and Progress and Emancipation of a Race. On a direct east-west axis with the Washington Monument and the United States Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial serves as the terminus to the western end of the Mall. It is situated on the Reflecting Pool near the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Korean War Veterans Memorial.
The Lincoln Memorial was an important symbol of the American civil rights movement. Marian Anderson, the famed African American contralto, with the support of first lady Eleanor Roosevelt, was granted permission by the Department of the Interior to perform at the Lincoln Memorial in 1939 after being denied the right to sing at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1963, on the 100th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in front of more than 200,000 people.

Statue of Liberty, formally Liberty Enlightening the World, colossal statue on Liberty Island in the Upper New York Bay, U.S., commemorating the friendship of the peoples of the United States and France. Standing 305 feet (93 metres) high including its pedestal, it represents a woman holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet bearing the adoption date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) in her left. The torch, which measures 29 feet (8.8 metres) from the flame tip to the bottom of the handle, is accessible via a 42-foot (12.8-metre) service ladder inside the arm (this ascent was open to the public from 1886 to 1916). An elevator carries visitors to the observation deck in the pedestal, which may also be reached by stairway, and a spiral staircase leads to an observation platform in the figure’s crown. A plaque at the pedestal’s entrance is inscribed with a sonnet, “The New Colossus” (1883) by Emma Lazarus. It was written to help raise money for the pedestal, and it reads:

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

A French historian, Edouard de Laboulaye, made the proposal for the statue. Funds were contributed by the French people, and work began in France in 1875 under sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi. The statue was constructed of copper sheets, hammered into shape by hand and assembled over a framework of four gigantic steel supports, designed by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. The colossus was presented to the American minister to France Levi Morton (later vice president) in a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884. In 1885 the completed statue, 151 feet 1 inch (46 metres) high and weighing 225 tons, was disassembled and shipped to New York City. The pedestal, designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt and built within the walls of Fort Wood on Bedloe’s Island, was completed later. The statue, mounted on its pedestal, was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland on Oct. 28, 1886. Over the years the torch underwent several modifications, including its conversion to electric power in 1916 and its redesign (with repoussé copper sheathed in gold leaf) in the mid-1980s, when the statue was repaired and restored by both American and French workers for a centennial celebration held in July 1986. The site was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1984.


Investigating Culture, Climate, and Geology within Architecture

What is this...(type of building)?

Whenwas this built?

Wherewas this built?

Wholives here...(if anyone)?

Whywas this built?


Investigating Culture, Climate, and Geology within Architecture

What is this...(type of building)?


Now that you know what type of building this is, have any of your opinions about the questions below changed? If so, write the changes.

Whenwas this built?

Wherewas this built?

Wholives here...(if anyone)?

Whywas this built?

CLUES (clues)




Religious Building

Government Building


Investigating Culture, Climate, and Geology within Architecture

Using what you've read in the article on your building, fill in your final conclusion on the below questions.

What is this...(type of building)? _
Whenwas this built?
Where was this built? _
Who lives here...(if anyone)?
Why was this built?



Your Dream House and Community

Pretend that you have just won the mega millions lottery, and are now looking for the perfect place to building your dream home. Describe or draw your dream house and community.

Be sure to answer/include:
a. Where (what country, climate, region)
b. What your house would look like (based on the location's climate/culture/geography)

c. What local community would probably be like(based on the location's climate/culture/geography)


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Holy Sepulchre. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Ka'bah. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

kremlin. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Lincoln Memorial. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

pagoda. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

pyramid. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Taj Mahal. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Statue of Liberty. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Western Wall. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

yurt. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

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[Photo of Taj Mahal]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Kaaba]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of The Western Wall]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012,

[Photo of Dome of the Rock]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Church of the Holy Sepulcher]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Pyramids]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:http:

[Photo of Kremlin]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Eiffel Tower]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Statue of Liberty]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of Lincoln Memorial]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of yurt]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of chalet]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

[Photo of pagoda]. Retrieved:October 5, 2012, from:

Yes. I have attempted to address as many of the multiple intelligences as possible
      • visual maps, photos
      • reading/writing
      • public speech presenting
      • group and social work
      • journal reflection, personal
      • opportunities of choice (i.e. resource ca1 worksheet “Describe or draw”)

N/a: Not teaching this lesson.

I have attempted to account for time by allowing certain assignments to be moved towards homework. I could probably include a [presentation/conclusion based on article] key (that I would create the day before class in order to refresh my own memory) in case a substitute would teach this lesson. Different photo slides have different reader ability articles that come with them, in order to provide easier/harder content for different level readers. I have also attempted to differentiate for different intelligences and talents. Students have opportunities to express opinions, and work with peers. This plan could certainly be more specific pertaining to management, difficulties with prior knowledge, etc if I was actually teaching this. The next lesson plan should have a much more thorough reflection!